Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a separation method that is suitable for a variety of purposes, especially when salt and/or dissolved solids need to be faraway from an answer. It is considered one of the commonest types of water treatment.
According to Anelia Hough, water therapy advisor at Allmech, main South African producer of boilers and provider of water treatment components, there are a number of factors to be considered when selecting an RO system: the customer’s capacity requirement (i.e. water usage), the every day manufacturing capacity of the system, and the % rejection for specific contaminants within the supply water.
“Beyond this, RO crops require proper upkeep and care to make sure they perform optimally and to increase their lifespan,” she says. “Aside from regular maintenance, the easiest way to guard a RO plant is by pre-treating water, which reduces the pressure on the RO membrane – a pricey element. It additionally helps to avoid issues like scaling and bio-fouling.”

Common Issues with RO Plants

“Factors that can affect a RO system’s efficiency include temperature, operating strain, back pressure, the equilibrium effect/TDS creep, percent restoration, and, after all, the RO membrane’s permeate manufacturing and p.c rejection ratings,” says Hough.
The most typical issues in RO vegetation embody:
• Fouling: happens when contaminants accumulate on the membrane surface, successfully plugging the membrane. There are many contaminants in municipal feed water that are innocent for human consumption, but large enough to shortly foul (or plug) an RO system.
• Scaling: when particles are deposited on a membrane, causing it to plug. As certain dissolved compounds become more concentrated, scaling can happen if these compounds exceed their solubility limits and precipitate on the membrane surface as scale. Scaling calculations are often solely based mostly on the silicate concentration within the feed water.
• Biofouling: reduces actual membrane efficiency via microbial generation in a biofilm that forms on the membrane surface.
• Chemical damage: on a RO membrane, this implies a better permeate move and poorer high quality permeate water. Dosing of เกจวัดแรงดัน , such as chlorine or hypochlorite, can cut back performance and in the end result within the failure of the RO membranes. Use of aggressive cleaners also can cause chemical injury.
• Mechanical injury: can occur when a system is pressurised too shortly, damaging the RO membrane parts. One of the most clears indicators of damages on a RO membrane is the lack of salt rejection capabilities. There can be fairly often an increase of permeate move price.
Pre-treatment can help to keep away from these problems, and Hough says there are numerous choices out there.
Pre-treatment Options

“When deciding on a pre-filter, users should always look for a verified efficiency rating subsequent to the micron size on the filter’s technical data sheet,” says Hough.
• Multi Media Filtration: A multi-media filter is used to help stop fouling of a RO system. This type of sediment filtration is ideal for a pre-treatment course of to any reverse osmosis system helping to make sure lengthy lifetime of the RO membrane components. A nicely operated multimedia filter can remove particulates down to 20 microns. A multimedia filter that uses a coagulant addition can take away particulates all the way down to 10 microns.
• Micro Filtration: The filters utilized in microfiltration have a pore dimension of approximately zero.1 micron. Bacteria and suspended solids are the only component that might be eliminated via microfiltration.
• Antiscalants and scale inhibitors: There are many chemicals that can be utilized as antiscalants and dispersants to improve the operation of RO. Antiscalants are a household of chemicals designed to inhibit the formation and precipitation of crystallized mineral salts that form scale.
• Softening by ion trade: A water softener is a filtration system that removes hardness-causing calcium and magnesium minerals from water by way of a process referred to as ion change. Standard water softeners are cation exchange units. Cation change involves the substitute of the hardness ions with non-hardness ions.
• Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Filtration: Activated carbon removes residual chlorine and chloramines by a chemical reaction that involves a switch of electrons from the surface of the GAC to the residual chlorine or chloramines. The chlorine or chloramines end up as a chloride ion that is no longer an oxidizer.
“It’s also essential to clean the RO membrane often,” says Hough. “This entails low and high pH cleaners to remove contaminants from the membrane. We tackle scaling with low pH cleaners and organics, while colloidal and biofouling are handled with a high pH cleaner.”

Allmech provides the complete vary of pre-treatment and RO membrane upkeep options for RO crops, including filtration techniques, softeners, antiscalants, chemicals and different consumables.
“At Allmech, we’re trying ahead to rising this a half of our business in 2022 and past, leveraging our experience in all things associated to water treatment. We even have a boiler division and we stock a comprehensive vary of Runxin valves, so we’re nicely positioned to be a one-stop store for anybody needing a water treatment or boiler specialist, and we’re expecting a busy year ahead,” Hough says.

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